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Imam Khomeini’s Biography

    3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1. When Imam Khomeini was on plane on his way to Iran after many years in exile, a reporter, Peter Jennings asked him: "What do you feel?" and surprisingly Imam Khomeini answered "Nothing!"

    Under Imam Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women.5;"> 

    During November of 1964, Imam Khomeini made a denunciation of both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted to American military personnel in Iran by the Shah.5;">Conservative estimates put the welcoming crowd of Iranians at least three million.

    Relationship with other Islamic nations

     

    As protest grew, so did Imam Khomeini’s profile and importance. Rushdie's book contains passages that some Muslims — including Ayatollah Imam Khomeini — considered offensive to Islam and the Prophet.5;">Life in exile

    On February 11, Imam Khomeini declared a provisional government. His sons entered into religious life.

    Imam KhomeiniAlthough outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, the West (America in particular) became alarmed by the possibility of the Islamic Revolution spreading throughout the oil-exporting Persian Gulf oil and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed.5;">Also this was a turning point in political viewpoint of Islam.khamenei. Though Rushdie publicly apologized, the fatwa was not revoked, Imam Khomeini explaining that "even if Salman Rushdie repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell.

    Early Years

    With what many believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 - August 1988).5;">After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Imam Khomeini died of cancer on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 89.5;">Velayat-e Faqih

Imam Khomeini

Establishment of new government

Letter to Mikhail S.khamenei.5;">Imam Khomeini intended to reconstruct Muslim unity and solidarity, so he declared the birth week of Prophet of Islam (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi'al-Awwal in Islamic Hegira calendar) as the Unity Week.

Works:

  • Life under Imam Khomeini

     

    Imam KhomeiniBut because of Islamic ideology of Islamic Republic of Iran, most rulers of other Muslim nations turned against him and supported Iraq in the imposed war against Iran, even though most of Islamic parties and organizations supported his idea.5;">In 1921, Imam Khomeini commenced his studies in Arak. Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as, for example, "the Jewish agent, the American snake whose head must be smashed with a stone," became common items on the markets of Iran, helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign.

    Imam KhomeiniIn 1929, Imam Khomeini married Batol Saqafi Khomeini, the daughter of a cleric in Tehran."

    Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Imam Khomeini and his successors.

    Imam KhomeiniSaddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan and undermine attempts by Iranian Islamic revolutionaries to incite the Shia majority of his country. He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (March 21, 1963) be cancelled as a sign of protest against government policies. First, his interest in Islamic studies surpassed the bounds of traditional subjects of Islamic law (Sharia), jurisprudence (Fiqh), and principles (Usul) and the like. Imam Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved, and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom before being exiled to the holy city of Najaf in Iraq.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/274."

     

    Logically, in the 1970s, as contrasted with the 1940s, he no longer accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907, an idea that was clearly evidenced by his book Kashf-e Asrar.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.5;">In a speech given to a huge crowd on the first day of returning to Iran, Imam Khomeini attacked the government of Shapoor Bakhtiar promising "I shall punch their teeth in.5;">Although during this scholarly phase of his life Imam Khomeini was not politically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings revealed that he firmly believed from the beginning in political activism by clerics.5;">A modified form of this Velayat-e Faqih system was adopted after Imam Khomeini and his followers took power, and he became the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Grand Leader. As the war ended, the struggles among the clergy resumed and Imam Khomeini’s health began to decline.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.5;">Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah KhameneiReturn to Iran

    Imam Khomeini believed that Iran should strive towards self-reliance.5;">Opposition to White Revolution

    Family and early years

    Imam Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Sahifeh Nour (Vol. Second, his teaching focused often on the overriding relevance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day. By law, several seats in the Parliament are reserved for minority religions.5;">Political thought and legacy

  • Imam Khomeini’s Biography

    In the meantime, however, Imam Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade.5;">Rushdie Fatwa

    Following Imam Khomeini's public denunciation of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi as a "wretched miserable man" and his arrest, on June 5, 1963 (Khordad 15, on the Iranian calendar), three days of major riots erupted throughout Iran with nearly 400 killed. Imam Khomeini claimed that Rushdie's murder was a religious duty for Muslims because of his alleged blasphemy against Prophet Mohammad in his novel, The Satanic Verses.

    velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult. Along with the position of the Grand Leader, the constitution also requires that a president be elected every four years, but only those candidates approved indirectly by the Council of Guardians may run for the office.5;">Only two weeks after the Shah fled Iran on January 16, 1979, Imam Khomeini returned to Iran triumphantly, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, invited by the anti-Shah revolution which was already in progress. His last will and testament largely focuses on this line of thought, encouraging both the general Iranian populace, the lower economic classes in particular, and the clergy to maintain their commitment to fulfilling Islamic revolutionary ideals.jpg" width="640" style="box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid rgb(221, 221, 221); max-width: 100%; padding: 6px;">

    Imam Khomeini 

    Ulama) who felt keenly threatened.5;">Interpretation of Forces of Reason and Negligence Tradition 

  • Imam Khomeini first became politically active in 1962. Arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted, instead, to the seminary in Arak, which was renowned for its scholastic brilliance under the leadership of Ayatollah Sheikh Abdol-Karim Haeri-Yazdi (himself a pupil of some of the greatest scholars of Najaf and Karbala in Iraq). The Ulama instigated anti-government riots throughout the country.

    Opposition to capitulation

    Imam Ayatollah Seyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was a Muslim cleric and Marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

    Imam Khomeini 

    Imam Khomeini led an ascetic lifestyle, being deeply interested in mysticism, and was against the accumulation of land and wealth by the clergy.khamenei.5;">Imam KhomeiniDeath and funeral


  • Imam Khomeini was considered a Marja-e taqlid to many Muslims, and in Iran was officially addressed as Imam rather than Grand Ayatollah; his supporters adhere to this convention. Shortly after his return from exile in 1979, Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Bahai) be treated well.khamenei.5;">In early 1970 Imam Khomeini gave a lecture series in Najaf on Islamic Government which later was published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih). Also he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatollah Hassan Modarres —the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during 1920s.khamenei.

    Serr al-Salat (Secrets of Prayers)

  • Imam Khomeini's father was murdered when he was five months old, and he was raised by his mother and one of his aunts.

    In December 1988 (before the fall of the Berlin Wall), Ayatollah Imam Khomeini sent a letter to USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev predicting the fall of Communism and inviting him to study and research Islam.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.3px; font-family: Roboto, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 1.5;">Imam Khomeini's definition of democracy existed within an Islamic framework.5;">Imam KhomeiniAs the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Imam Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. The modernizing programs of Pahlavi dynasty restricted and threatened religious life and made clergies be against monarchy and finally Imam Khomeini decide to fight with them and build another state comparable to religious rules.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/283.5;">Imam Khomeini adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist would insure Sharia was properly followed (Velayat-e Faqih).khamenei." After assuming power, Islam was made the basis of Iran's new constitution and obedience to Islamic laws made compulsory.

  • Early Political Activity

    Introduction

    Many of Imam Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution.5;">Grand Leader of Islamic Republic of Iran

    Hajj

. Imam Khomeini issued on January 22, 1963 a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans.5;">In January 1963, the Shah announced a six-point program of reform called the White Revolution, an American-inspired package of measures designed to give his regime a liberal and progressive facade."

This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice: corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers. Because the deaths of the leading, although quiescent, Shia religious leader, Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Borujerdi (1961), and of the activist cleric Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1962) left the arena of leadership open to Imam Khomeini, who had attained a prominent religious standing by the age of 60.5;">In early 1989, Imam Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Salman Rushdie, an Indian-born British author. Women had to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts.5;">Forty Hadiths (Forty Traditions)  

  • Imam Khomeini spent over 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq.

    Iran-Iraq War

    Interpretation of Dawn Pray

  • That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life.5;">Interpretation of Surah Fatihah
  • Jihad-e Akbar (The Greater Struggle)
  • Tahrir al-Wasilah
  • Family and descendants

    Imam Khomeini became a Marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi. Initially, he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964, where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. This was above all a hegemonic project intended to portray the Shah as a revolutionary leader through the utilization of social and historical myths reinterpreted through the prism of contemporary, often conflicting ideological constructs, such as nationalism and modernism.ir/d/2015/09/19/3/276. He was a Seyyed from a religious family that are descendants of Prophet Mohammad, through the seventh Imam, (Imam Mousa Kazem).5;">Ruhollah Mousavi was born to Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Musavi and Hajieh Agha Khanum, also called Hajar, in the town of Khomein, about 300 kilometers south of the capital Tehran, Iran, possibly on May 17, 1900 or September 24, 1902.

    Following Imam Khomeini’s demise, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei came to be selected on June 4, 1989 by the Assembly of Experts to be his successor, in accordance with the Constitution.5;">Adab-e Salat (The Disciplines of Prayers)       

  • Since Sharia, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia (Islamic jurists are such people), and that the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice, as well as having intelligence and administrative ability.5;">In this time he could represent his religious-political ideas openly.

    Imam Khomeini's grandson Seyyed Hassan Khomeini, son of the late Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is also a cleric and the trustee of Imam Khomeini's shrine
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